Whenever a massive scam happens or is allowed to happen, it is quite usual to blame it on a systemic failure and the 2G telecom spectrum scam is no exception. It is believed that this type of scams could be possible only with the collective failure of a number of agencies involved. This type of thinking is used as an umbrella to protect the individuals charged with preventing exactly such happenings. Even if those individuals were not accomplices, they were at least deficient in carrying out their bounden duty to exercise due vigilance. Scams happen because there are persons who engineer and execute them and there are others in the know who choose to look the other way.
It is, therefore, incorrect to say that scams result from systemic failures, it is actually the failure of some individuals, they could be in large numbers, in the system that causes them. Each one of them should be identified, their culpability fixed in promptly held trials and be punished adequately. Simultaneously, any holes in the system should also be plugged. Only then scams and scandals will not become common place.